Hearing loss is being partly or totally unable to hear sound in one or both ears.
Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis
Symptoms of hearing loss may include:
- Certain sounds seem overly loud in one ear
- Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking
- Difficulty hearing in noisy areas
- Trouble telling high-pitched sounds (such as "s" or "th") from one another
- Less trouble hearing men's voices than women's voices
- Hearing voices as mumbled or slurred
Other symptoms include:
- Feeling of being off-balance or dizzy (more common with Ménière disease and acoustic neuroma)
- Feeling of pressure in the ear (in the fluid behind the eardrum)
- Ringing or buzzing sound in the ears (tinnitus)
Conductive hearing loss (CHL) occurs because of a mechanical problem in the outer or middle ear. This may be because:
- The 3 tiny bones of the ear (ossicles) are not conducting sound properly.
- The eardrum is not vibrating in response to sound.
Causes of conductive hearing loss can often be treated. They include:
- Buildup of wax in the ear canal
- Damage to the very small bones (ossicles) that are right behind the eardrum
- Fluid remaining in the ear after an ear infection
- Foreign object that is stuck in the ear canal
- Hole in the eardrum
- Scar on the eardrum from repeated infections
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) occurs when the tiny hair cells (nerve endings) that detect sound in the ear are injured, diseased, do not work correctly, or have died. This type of hearing loss often cannot be reversed.
Sensorineural hearing loss is commonly caused by:
Hearing loss may be present at birth (congenital) and can be due to:
- Birth defects that cause changes in the ear structures
- Genetic conditions (more than 400 are known)
- Infections the mother passes to her baby in the womb (such as toxoplasmosis, rubella, or herpes
The ear can also be injured by:
You can often flush wax buildup out of the ear (gently) with ear syringes (available in drug stores) and warm water. Wax softeners (like Cerumenex) may be needed if the wax is hard and stuck in the ear.
Take care when removing foreign objects from the ear. Unless it is easy to get to, have your health care provider remove the object. Don't use sharp instruments to remove foreign objects.
See your provider for any other hearing loss.
The provider will take your medical history and do a physical exam.
Tests that may be done include:
The following surgeries may help some types of hearing loss:
The following may help with long-term hearing loss:
Cochlear implants are only used in people who have lost too much hearing to benefit from a hearing aid.
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Baloh RW, Jen JC. Hearing and equilibrium. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 428.
Bauer CA, Jenkins HA. Otologic symptoms and syndromes. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 156.
Eggermont JJ. Types of hearing loss. In: Eggermont JJ, ed. Hearing Loss. Cambridge, MA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2017:chap 5.
Lonsbury-Martin BL, Martin GK. Noise-induced hearing loss. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 152.
National Foundation for the Deaf website. Helpful resources. www.nfd.org.nz/hearing-matters. Accessed October 23, 2018.
Shibata SB, Shearer AE, Smith RJH. Genetic sensorineural hearing loss. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 148.